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Discussion: Need two paragraph. check the Discussion word file

Assignment: Check the assignment file. Article is attached for the assignment

Week 1 – 4 Workforce Planning Steps

Assignment Content

Top of FormAssignment Question: Outline the 4 Workforce Planning Steps discussed in the 1st article (Practicing the Discipline of Workforce Planning) and state why each is important.

You will be graded on your ability to articulate in your assignment your ability to understand and identify the Strategic Workforce Planning process and highlight the importance of each step in the process and how it aligns with the business needs.

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DB7 – Ethical Leadership

Please create a thread and post 2 paragraphs in this Discussion Forum. Include the following.


1st paragraph: Select one entrepreneurial leader of your choice with the following characteristics:


a) founded their own organization (for-profit, nonprofit, or for-profit social enterprises)

b) has a leadership role by supporting new practices/values in an industry and serving as a role model

c) expressed his/her own values which influenced positive social change

d) has inspired you by providing lessons valuable for your personal/career goals


Feel free to select an entrepreneurial leader from any country, such as by visiting the webpage of the Ashoka Fellows at . 

State the name of your selected entrepreneurial leader and the name, website of his/her organization, and main highlights of his/her work and positive social/environmental impact.


2nd paragraph: Describe how he/she has expressed his/her values which influenced positive social change, and how this leader has inspired you by providing lessons valuable for your personal/career aspirations.


Example: Identify an entrepreneur such as Daniel Lubetzky, founder of Kind Bars and a pioneer of healthier snacks produced in a sustainable manner ( Describe whether the entrepreneur identified social trends such as increasing consumer interest in healthier foods, and created awareness by using sustainable sourcing of natural foods and expressing his values via the products' packages, company's website, book, and interviews.


Practicing the Discipline of Workforce Planning


Workforce planning is the process an organization uses to analyze its workforce and determine the steps it must take to prepare for future sta�ng needs.

Any business plan deals with resource requirements, and, just as �nancial requirements need to be addressed, the business plan needs to ensure that the

appropriate workforce mix is available to accomplish plan goals and objectives. In workforce planning, an organization conducts a systematic assessment

of workforce content and composition issues and determines what actions must be taken to respond to future needs. The actions to be taken may depend

on external factors (e.g., skill availability) as well as internal factors (e.g., age of the workforce). These factors may determine whether future skill needs will

be met by recruiting, by training or by outsourcing the work.

Whether handled separately or as part of the business plan, workforce planning involves working through four issues:

The composition and content of the workforce that will be required to strategically position the organization to deal with its possible futures and

business objectives.

The gaps that exist between the future "model" organization(s) and the existing organization, including any special skills required by possible


The recruiting and training plans for permanent and contingent sta� that must be put in place to deal with those gaps.

The determination of the outside sources that will be able to meet the skill needs for functions or processes that are to be outsourced.

While many see workforce planning as purely a sta�ng tool for anticipating employment needs, it can also be a critical tool for sta� training and

development and succession planning. To be successful, organizations should conduct a regular and thorough workforce planning assessment so that

sta�ng needs can be measured, training and development goals can be established, and contingent workforce options can be used to create an optimally

sta�ed and trained workforce able to respond to the needs of the business.

Roles of HR and Senior Management in Workforce Planning

Often, a workforce plan is completed simultaneously with organizational strategic planning and is updated with the same frequency as the strategic plan.

While the HR department is typically responsible for the bulk of workforce planning initiatives, other members of senior management may be involved in

the workforce planning process, including the CEO, COO, CFO and other leaders responsible for organizational strategy. To ensure the e�ectiveness of a

workforce plan, leaders should evaluate the ability of the plan to anticipate and respond to future needs so that the organization can make and execute

sound business decisions. Performance indicators will include standard organizational performance measures: pro�tability, ROI, productivity and so on. An

e�ective performance management system can have a positive impact on the performance indicators of the organization. Benchmarks may also be

established by relying on industry data.

Tips for E�ective Workforce Planning

For the workforce planning process to be successful, human resource professionals responsible for leading workforce planning initiatives should make

sure to:

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Designate a speci�c member of the HR team to manage the process.

Find a high-level executive to champion the plan.

Involve key stakeholders in the workforce planning process.

Align the plan with the company's strategic business plan.

Coordinate the workforce plan with succession planning and career development initiatives.

Make workforce planning an ongoing activity, with continuous evaluation of changes in the internal and external environment that may a�ect the

organization's sta�ng needs.

Steps in the Workforce Planning Process

Several distinct analytical steps need to be taken in workforce planning:

�. The supply analysis, also referred to as the "supply model" or "sta�ng assessment," involves an analysis of an organization's current labor supply.

�. The demand analysis, also referred to as the "demand model," includes a review of future business plans and objectives.

�. The gap analysis compares the di�erences in the supply and demand models and identi�es skill surpluses and de�ciencies.

�. The solution analysis focuses on how to address gaps in current sta�ng and future sta�ng needs through recruiting, training and development,

contingent sta�ng, and outsourcing.


The purpose of the supply model is to analyze the organization as it currently exists—in other words, the supply of labor and skill sets that are vital to an

organization. This analysis should encompass not only the number of employees and their skills, but also factors such as workforce demographics and

representation of protected classes. Demographics may be especially important in workforce planning if the organization has large numbers of workers

nearing retirement age, or if it has large numbers of young workforce entrants with turnover rates exceeding those of older, seasoned employees.

Representation of protected classes will have signi�cance for federal or state government contractors, which must comply with applicable a�rmative action

plan requirements, as well as for organizations that have a voluntary a�rmative action plans and that wish to improve representation of underused

protected classes. See How does the use of trend analysis �t into the overall workplace planning process? (


A supply analysis also involves making projections of attrition (due to resignations, retirements, internal transfers, promotions and involuntary terminations)

over the planning horizon being used, so that attrition is taken into account in considering the future supply of labor and skill. From this information, the

workforce planner can develop a pro�le of current sta� as it would exist in the future if no action is taken in recruiting, training or outsourcing.


The purpose of the demand model is to forecast the organization's future workforce composition. This forecast should take into consideration a broad

range of business issues, including new product lines, competitive forces and expansion/constriction in global marketplaces, anticipated workforce

availability within geographic boundaries, and myriad other issues.

Internal and external factors need to be considered in the demand analysis. Analyses of internal demand in�uences may focus on the following questions,

among others:

Will the current workforce, with minimal retraining, have the skill sets necessary to perform new duties with a new product line?

Will current employees remain loyal to the organization if it has anticipated changes in mind?

Analyses of external demand in�uences may consider these questions:

Is labor readily available that possesses the skills and abilities needed by the evolving organization?

What external pressures will change demand for goods and services that may ultimately a�ect internal business decisions and, thus, workforce

planning needs?

The future composition of the workforce must also be analyzed. This analysis will seek answers to the following questions:

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How many employees will be necessary to achieve business plan goals and objectives?

What skills and competencies will be required for the new business?

What is the composition of the available workforce population?

What will the organization need to do to attract prospective employees?

What will the organization need to do to attract and retain a diverse group of workers?


The next step in the process seeks to compare the supply model with the demand model to identify gaps between the composition of the current

workforce and future workforce needs. The workforce planning professional may want to categorize a variety of future scenarios and then select the future

that is most likely to occur, with contingency planning for alternative futures. When conducting this analysis, the planner should identify the additional

number of employees needed who have the requisite skill sets, as well as the employees who will no longer be needed due to limited skill sets.


Solution analysis involves the development of strategies to close the gaps identi�ed in the previous step. Approaches for meeting future workplace

demands may include recruiting, training and retraining, using contingent sta�, or outsourcing. The approaches selected will be dependent on whether the

organization will need to expand, contract, restructure or rely on contingent sta� to meet new workplace demands.

Recruiting. When external sta� is required to meet a workforce expansion due to demands of new product lines, expanded production or service o�erings,

or new geographic areas to be served, external recruitment may be the logical strategy to address gaps. Recruiting may also be required as turnover

occurs, whether due to employees leaving to �nd other employment opportunities or to retirement, which may be the case for organizations with large

numbers of employees nearing retirement age. Employers can choose among a wide variety of tactics for executing their recruiting strategy. These tactics

vary depending on market conditions, the type of targeted candidates, diversity-related issues and other factors. Cost and time are major issues in

recruitment. Even if the recruitment process is e�cient, it typically costs more and takes longer to �nd, hire and train a new person than to "recycle" a

current employee through internal recruitment. So, in many instances, external recruitment should be the workforce planning strategy of last resort.

See Recruiting Internally and Externally (

Training and retraining. Instead of �lling the skills gaps through external recruiting, human resource professionals may choose the less costly solution of

employee development, particularly for key high-value positions. Employee development builds on current intellectual capital, retains the corporate culture,

and motivates and stimulates the workforce. As skill sets become obsolete due to new technology, new services, additional product lines or other

competitive forces, the organization should focus on updating skills and capabilities of their employees as a critical workforce planning strategy. Training,

retraining and development may include many methodologies, such as classroom training, on-the-job training, e-learning, webinars and job aids. These

activities may concentrate on speci�c job duties and tasks or on leadership and managerial skills for new leaders.

Contingent sta�ng. When the current number of employees or their skills sets are insu�cient to accomplish the work, given the anticipated business

future, contingent sta�ng may be used to �ll that gap. This approach makes sense when the demand model indicates that the numbers of employees will

vary signi�cantly and cannot be leveled out through resource allocation strategies. Contingent sta�ng is often best used when the future is likely to be

�uid or highly dynamic; in these circumstances, it may be a better alternative than hiring full-time employees who may not be needed on an ongoing basis.

Contingent sta�ng options include temporary employees, part-time employees, contract workers and consultants. Discussion of each of these types


Temporary workers

Temporary workers may be found internally or externally, depending on the needs of the organization. Although temporary sta� is often hired to perform

traditional clerical duties, the desire for additional �exibility, as well as early retirement, has resulted in higher-level experienced individuals seeking

temporary assignments to meet their personal goals. Today's temporary workers can be hired to work in virtually every level of an organization, including

CEOs, controllers, accountants, consultants, IT, marketing and HR.

To maximize the bene�ts of using temporary workers, human resource professionals should consider whether to use an agency or internal resources,

determine selection criteria, ensure successful onboarding, set expectations and e�ectively manage performance. Organizations will also want to ensure

that policies or procedures are established for issues such as screening and selecting temporary agencies, temporary-to-regular employee classi�cation,

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discipline, work behaviors and legal compliance activities.

Part-time employees

Part-time employees are those who typically work less than a full-time schedule. Many of these employees work a partial day every workday; some work

part-week, and some may work part-month. Some may even job-share with another part-time employee. Part-time work can be used to attract diverse

workers, including students, parents of young children, older workers and others who need or want to work but do not wish to work a full-time schedule.

Most organizations require part-time employees to follow all policies and procedures that their full-time employees must follow. Fewer or di�erent bene�ts

may be o�ered to part-time employees than to full-time employees.

Contract workers and consultants

Sometimes an organization may need workers who have specialized knowledge or expertise to help meet new business requirements. Independent

contractors and consultants may be used to meet these special requirements. Employers should take care in properly identifying contract workers and

consultants, as misclassi�cation of these workers can result in violations of the Fair Labor Standards Act or Internal Revenue Service regulations.

Classifying a worker as an independent contractor should always be an informed and bona �de business decision, not a subterfuge to avoid the

employer's legal obligations to employees. Independent contractor arrangements have drawn increasing scrutiny and signi�cance with the proliferation of

workplace laws covering "employees" and the growth of the contingent workforce. Misclassi�cation of an individual as an independent contractor can give

rise to a variety of liabilities. See Employing Independent Contractors and Other Gig Workers (



Organizations may determine that certain noncore business functions would be better accomplished by outsourcing them to an organization that

specializes in those functional areas. Jobs that are prime targets for outsourcing are those that require a skill that is critical, in short supply and needed

only periodically. If such needs can be handled through contingent sta�—for example, by using retirees—the organization will, of course, be ahead.

However, many high-demand, low-supply, leading-edge skill needs may be met only through outsourcing to specialized contractors.

To ensure that outsourced functions are properly managed, HR should consider:

Selecting the right �rm.

Establishing guidelines for a partnering relationship.

Communication methodologies and protocols.

Metrics for measuring and ensuring business results.

Companies and providers should work to structure an outsourcing contract that can adapt to the client's changing needs. See Outsourcing the HR Function


Succession Planning as a Workforce Planning Tool

Another aspect of e�ective workforce planning is succession planning. Succession planning is used by organizations to identify and prepare suitable

employees to �ll key positions when current employees leave their jobs. An e�ective workforce planning process will include a review of key leadership

and business-critical roles and will identify key incumbents able to progress into these roles. Having a succession plan in place generally ensures a smooth

continuation of business when key players leave due to retirement, resignations or transfers within the company.

The types of positions included in a succession plan vary by organization. Traditionally, these plans included only executive-level positions. In recent years,

however, companies have been selecting successors for positions throughout the organization. During times of economic upheaval, when the economic

security of organizations and their sta�s may be uncertain, the need for up-to-date succession plans increases. With a wavering economic outlook,

downsizing, mergers and acquisitions become more likely. With these events leading to potential increases in turnover, implementing a succession plan is

a key strategy an organization can use to reduce turnover costs and ensure smooth transitions. In addition, a succession plan can help foster employee

commitment because it demonstrates to employees that the organization supports their development and internal growth.

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© 2022 SHRM. All Rights Reserved

SHRM provides content as a service to its readers and members. It does not o�er legal advice, and cannot guarantee the accuracy or suitability of its content for a particular purpose.

Disclaimer (

Organizations use a variety of models for succession planning, which may range from self-identi�cation or nomination to highly sophisticated software tools

that maintain information about individual employees' development plans, training and education completed, classes taken, performance evaluations, and

recommendations for future development. See Engaging in Succession Planning (



News, trends and analysis, as well as breaking news alerts, to help HR professionals do their jobs better each business day.

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